Acronym Bal
Methodical Focus open source , electricity , district heat
Institution(s) RAM-lose, DTU Danish Technical University, NMBU Norwegian University of Life Sciences, TTU Tallinn University of Technology, EA Energianalyse
Author(s) (institution, working field, active time period)
Current contact person Hans Ravn
Contact (e-mail)
Primary Purpose Balmorel is a model for analysing the electricity and combined heat and power sectors in an international perspective. It is highly versatile and may be applied for long range planning as well as shorter time operational analysis. The model is developed in a model language, and the source code is readily available, thus providing complete documentation of the functionalities. Moreover, the user may modify the model according to specific requirements, making the model suited for any purpose within the focus parts of the energy system. Balmorel is a partial equilibrium model for simultaneous optimisation of generation, transmission and consumption of electricity and heat under the assumption of perfectly competitive markets. The model finds the optimal way to satisfy the energy demand maximising social welfare, viz., consumers' utility minus producers' cost of electricity and district heat generation, storage, transmission and distribution; subject to technical, physical and regulatory constraints.
Support / Community / Forum
Link to User Documentation;
Link to Developer/Code Documentation
Documentation quality good
Source of funding project-based
Number of devolopers less than 10
Number of users less than 100
Open Source
License ISC license
Source code available
Link to source code
Data provided some
Cooperative programming
GitHub Contributions Graph
Modelling software GAMS
Internal data processing software
External optimizer
Additional software
Citation reference 10.5281/zenodo.823692
Citation DOI 10.5281/zenodo.823692
Please list references to reports and studies which were produced using the model;
Larger scale usage DTU, NMBU, TTU, EA Energy Analysis, COWI, HOFOR, Danish Energy Association, Estonian Transmission System Operator Elering, Mexican Energy Minsitery, Eastern African Power Pool (EAPP), Sino-Danish Renewable Energy Development (RED) programme
Modeled demand sectors -
Link to API documentation
API to openmod database
Points/degree of abstraction medium
Models using this framework Balmorel

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